How did the earliest animals feed?

Among the strange early animals of the latest Precambrian, known as the Ediacaran fauna, is the slug-like Kimberella. Unlike most of its cohort, which are impressions in sediment or trace fossils,  Kimberella is a body fossil in which can be seen signs of a front and back, i.e. mouth and anus (See also: A lowly worm from the Ediacaran?). In that respect they are the same as us: bilaterians both. Indeed, Kimberella may be one of the oldest of our broad kind that we will ever be able to see. Rare examples have fans of grooves radiating from their ‘front’. It may have grated its food, a bit like a slug does, but drew it in to its mouth. Some enthusiasts have likened the little beasty to a JCB digger, able to rotate and rake stuff into its mouth. In that case, Kimberella would have moved ‘backwards’ while feeding. If it can be likened to any modern animals, it may be a simple mollusc.

A Kimberella fossil, about 10 centimetres long, and a speculative reconstruction showing its feeding apparatus.

Other Ediacaran animals show no such mouth-gut-anus symmetry. Some have tops and bases, but most show no symmetry at all, being flaccid bag-like creatures. Palaeontologists provisionally suggest that they are primitive sponges, ctenophores, placozoans and cnidarians. Such animals excrete through pores on their surfaces and draw food in either through a simple mouth or their skins. The early bilaterians probably ‘grazed’ on bacterial or algal mats, but until now that has been conjectural. Ilya Bobrovskiy of the Australian National University and colleagues from Russia and Australia have managed to extract and analyse biomarker chemicals contained in well-preserved specimens of three Ediacaran animals from strata on the White Sea coast of Russia (Bobrovskiy, I. et al. 2022. Guts, gut contents, and feeding strategies of Ediacaran animals. Current Biology, v. 32,   ; DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2022.10.051). Biomarkers are molecules, such as fatty acids, phospholipids, triglycerides, hopanes and steranes, that definitively indicate metabolic processes of once living organisms, sometimes referred to as ‘molecular fossils’. Their varying proportions relative to one another are key to recognising the presence of different groups of organisms.

Specifically, hopane molecules are the best indicators of the former metabolism of bacteria whereas steranes (based on linked chains of carbon atoms bonded in rings) are typical products of degradation of sterols in eukaryotes. One sterane group involving 27 carbon atoms (C27 steranes) are typically formed when and animal dies and decays.   C28 and C29 steranes likely form when algae decay, as when they are digested in the gut of a herbivore. Specimens of one of the Ediacaran animals analysed by the team – Dickinsonia – contained far more C27 steranes than C28 and C29, a sign of biomarkers associated with its decay. It probably absorbed food, weirdly, through its skin. Kimberella and a worm-like animal – Calyptrina – had sterane proportions which suggested that they digested algae or bacteria in a gut, as befits bilaterians. Simple as they may appear, these are among the earliest ancestors of modern animals, including us: of course!

See also: Lu, D. 2022. The real paleo diet: researchers find traces of world’s oldest meal in 550m-year-old fossil. The Guardian, 22 November 2022.;  World’s oldest meal helps unravel mystery of our earliest animal ancestors. scimex, 23 November 2022

3 thoughts on “How did the earliest animals feed?

  1. It is absolutely amazing that such informative chemical signatures can survive seemingly forever. Thanks for the summary.


    1. Thanks for your comment Linda. My guess is that steranes are products of biochemical breakdown anyway, so early in their history there are no microbes that can break them down any further to use them as nutrients. Once they are buried in oxygen-free sediments oxidation is also stifled. On top of that, chains of carbon rings are pretty stable. Steve


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