Verneshots (huge volcanic gas blasts) ten years on

One of the most daring hypotheses of modern geosciences: is that of the ‘Verneshot’ reported by Earth Pages in 2004.  Jason Phipps Morgan and colleagues explored the possible consequences of a build-up of volatiles in plume-related magmas at the base of thick continental lithosphere beneath cratons, prior to the eruption of continental flood basalts. They suggested that pressure would eventually result in an explosive release at a lithospheric weak point, followed by collapse above the plume head that would propagate upwards, at hypersonic speeds. Modelling the forces involved, the authors of the novel idea considered that they would be sufficient to fling huge rock masses into orbit.  Verneshots might neatly explain the circumstances around mass extinctions, such as their coincidence with continental flood basalt events; large impact structures, most likely at the antipode of the event; global debris layers containing shocked rock, melt spherules; unusual element suites and compounds (including fullerenes); and enough toxic gas to cause biological devastation.

Ten years on, Verneshots are back, again in the prestigious journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters, and this time among the co-authors are Morgan père et fils (W. Jason a founder of plate tectonics, and Jason P. who launched the idea). This time the yet-to-be –accepted hypothesis comes with evidence of an extremely unusual and fortuitous kind (Vannucchi, P. et al. 2015. Direct evidence of ancient shock metamorphism at the site of the 1908 Tunguska event. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 409, p. 168-174). The origin of the paper lies in an attempt to verify reports of shocked quartz in samples collected close to the centre of the 2000 km2 devastation that resulted from what is now accepted to have been a comet or asteroid air-burst explosion in June 1908 in the Tunguska region of Siberia. Apart from a disputed 300 m crater in the area, the Tunguska Event left no long-lived sign: it ‘merely’ knocked over millions of trees. However, its epicenter lay in a 10 km depression ringed by hills, that has been suggested to be a volcanic centre associated with the end-Permian Siberian Traps.

Trees knocked down and burned over hundreds of square km by the 1908Tunguska Event (credit: Leonid Alekseyevich Kulik deceased)
Trees knocked down and burned over hundreds of square km by the 1908 Tunguska Event (credit: Leonid Alekseyevich Kulik deceased)

The reported shocked quartz locality turned out to associated with an isolated occurrence of quartz-rich sand and rounded clasts of quartzite that contains sedimentary structures. The occurrence is surrounded by basalts of the Siberian Traps, yet is situated topographically above them. The quartzite is thought to be Permian terrestrial sandstone that commonly underlies much of the remaining extent of Siberian Traps.

Quartzite clasts do indeed contain shocked quartz, together with pseudotachylite glass veinlets, quartz and feldspar crystal growth on sedimentary grains and silica-rich glassy spherules. These features are not uniquely diagnostic of shock metamorphism, but are oddly absent from the surrounding Siberian Traps nearby, which suggests that whatever formed them predated the final eruptive stages of the end-Permian large igneous province. Indeed it would be unlikely that airburst of some extraterrestrial bolide in 1908 could produce the metamorphic features of the quartzites without setting ablaze the trees that it felled. A second possibility, that the Tunguska Depression is a Permo-Triassic impact crater and the quartzites being part of an associated central uplift runs into the unlikely coincidence of lying less than 5 km from the 1908 epicentre.

A third hypothesis is that the Tunguska Depression is a massive diatreme associated with a Verneshot. Another odd association lies 8 km to the south of the epicentre, a carbonatite that is one of many, along with smaller pipe-like structures all possibly linked to magmatic gas escape. The Tunguska Event, a mighty puzzle in its own right, may perhaps be eclipsed. Will silence return as it did after the original Verneshot hypothesis was published? Quite possibly, but another quirk about the Siberian Traps was reported by Earth Pages in mid-2014. In a contribution to a link between this massive end-Permian volcanic effusion and the Permian-Triassic mass extinction it was noted that in the Chinese sedimentary repository of evidence for the extinction there is an isolated spike in the abundance of nickel  that is almost certainly of volcanic origin, but only the one when repeated flood basalt events perhaps ought to have led to a series of nickel anomalies. One huge volcanic gas release as the Siberian Traps were building up?

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