When anatomically modern humans (AMH) became established in Europe the days of the Neanderthals were numbered. Yet, genomic evidence is mounting for many instances of interbreeding between the two groups (see Human evolution links). The longer they were in contact the chances of meeting and having sex were likewise increased. So, for how long were the two groups able to make contact? Neanderthals declined and eventually disappeared between 41 and 39 ka, except for a possible refuge for a tiny number in southern Spain until 37 ka and maybe in the northern Urals where there are disputed Mousterian stone tools as young as 34 to 31 ka. Undoubtedly, the appearance of AMH somehow contributed to the demise of our close relatives, but there are many possible reasons why. Until recently, the earliest European entry of AMH had been placed at around 41 ka, based on dating of H. sapiens remains in Romania (but note: a single 210 ka possible AMH skull from Greece). This is now exceeded by data from a Bulgarian cave.
The Bacho Kiro site was first excavated in the 1970s, and revealed stone tools that represent the earliest Upper Palaeolithic culture, known as the Bachokirian. Mitochondrial DNA from excavated bone fragments is clearly of AMH origin (Hublin, J.-J. and 31 others 2020. Initial Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens from Bacho Kiro Cave, Bulgaria. Nature, v. 581, online; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2259-z). Dating the Bacho Kiro cave sediments has been difficult, but new analytical and statistical approaches using the radiocarbon (14C) method have yielded ages between 46 to 44 ka and perhaps as far back at 47ka (Fewlass, H. and 20 others 2020. A 14C chronology for the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition at Bacho Kiro Cave, Bulgaria. Nature Ecology and Evolution, v. 4, online; DOI: 10.1038/s41559-020-1136-3). This is the earliest unequivocal, direct evidence of our species in Europe and its association with the initial Upper Palaeolithic culture. Among the finds are perforated animal teeth and ivory beads that probably formed pendants, which resemble those found elsewhere in association with late Neanderthals: the Chatelperronian culture that seems to have been shared between AMH and Neanderthals.
The new data add up to 6 thousand years to the period of AMH-Neanderthal co-occupation of Europe, or about 400 generations. Plenty of time to ‘get to know one another’, and perhaps to assimilate genetically
See also: Rincon, P. 2020. Longer overlap for modern humans and Neanderthals. (BBC News 11 May 2020); Metcalfe, T. 2020. A tooth offers evidence modern humans reached Europe earlier than previously thought. (NBC News 11 May 2020)